Shoulder Structure

The shoulder structures comprise three type of bones, the scapula (shoulder blade), the numerus (upper arm) and the clavicle (collarbone). The shoulder is a ball and socket joint. The top of the numerus (ball) slides into the socket of the scapula (the glenoid). The scapula extends up and around the shoulder joint at the rear to form a roof, called the acromion, and the scapula at the front of the shoulder joint has a bony area that sticks out, called the coracoid process.

The shoulder joint, the glen humeral joint, comprises the humeral head and the glenoid of the scapular bone; whereas, the shoulder contains a second joint, called the acromioclavicular joint (ACJ) that links the clavicle with the acromion area of the scapula. The ACJ passes on forces through the upper limb and shoulder to the main part of our skeleton, but it possesses negligible mobility due to being limited by the ligaments.

Dr. Gyanendra Singh is an Orthopedic Surgeon based in New Delhi. He is a specialist in this domain and offering several services like total knee replacement surgery, partial knee replacement surgery as well as revision knee replacement surgery. All surgery is performed as per the prescribed clinical standards.


Osteoarthritis and Rheumatoid Arthritis- It can destroy the shoulder joint and surrounding tissue. Osteoarthritis occurs when the articular surface of the joint wears thin. Rheumatoid arthritis is associated with chronic inflammation of the synovium lining which can produce chemicals that eventually destroy the inner lining of the joint, including the articular surface.

Shoulder surgery problems and treatments:

Bursitis or Tendinitis- It can occur with overuse from repetitive activities, such as swimming, painting, or weight lifting. These activities cause rubbing or squeezing (impingement) of the rotator cuff under the acromion and in the acromioclavicular joint.

Impingement and Partial Rotator Cuff TearsPartial thickness rotator cuff tears can be associated with chronic inflammation and the development of spurs on the underside of the acromion or the acromioclavicular joint.
The conservative nonsurgical treatment is modification of activity, light exercise, and, occasionally, a cortisone injection.

Full-Thickness Rotator Cuff Tears- This is most often the result of impingement, partial thickness rotator cuff tears, heavy lifting, or falls. Nonsurgical treatment with modification of activity is successful in a majority of cases.
Instability- It occurs when the head of the upper arm bone is forced out of the shoulder socket. This can happen as a result of sudden injury or from overuse of the shoulder ligaments.
Fractured head of the numerus- It is a common result of falls on an outstretched arm, particularly by older people with osteoporosis. If fragmented or displaced, it may require open surgical repair and possibly replacement with an artificial joint (prosthesis).

shoulder surgery 1

How long does it take to recover from a shoulder surgery? 

Recovery can take 4 to 6 months, depends upon the size of the tear and other factors. One may has to wear a sling for 4 to 6 weeks after surgery. Pain is usually managed with medicines. Physical therapy can help you regain the motion and strength of your shoulder